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1. JFLA Grant Programs

a. JFLA’s Salary Assistance Grant

Eligible programs may apply for up to $30,000 that can be used as a seed money grant to launch a brand-new program, to increase course offerings, or as a stop-gap measure to save a program facing budget cuts or closure. Those interested in applying for the Salary Assistance Grant (annual application deadline: 4/10) should first be aware that we prioritize applicants who provide a strong letter of support from their local stakeholders (superintendent, school president, dean, principal, etc.) and commit to continuing their program well beyond the grant period. For more information about this grant, please visit JFLA’s website.

b. JFLA’s Teaching Material Purchase Grant

Non-profit educational institutions in the U.S. are eligible to apply for JFLA’s Teaching Material Purchase Grant (annual application deadlines: 3/15, 9/15), which offers to reimburse up to $1,000 for teaching materials and “cultural items” such as origami supplies, classroom games/décor, etc. Many recently-expanded or brand-new programs who have received this grant have used it to build up their school/department libraries with authentic Japanese reading materials, or to redesign their course curriculum by adding DVDs, cultural activities, etc. For more information about this grant, please visit JFLA’s website.

c. Purchased with the Support of JFLA’s Teaching Material Purchase Grant

Finding appropriate teaching materials for JHL students can be challenging.
Linked below is a compilation of teaching materials purchased by JHL programs who received JFLA’s Teaching Material Purchase Grant between 2018 and 2022. Items in this list are separated according to type (textbook, reading materials, multimedia, etc.). We hope this list will serve as a helpful reference of popular teaching materials currently being used in JHL education, and that the items listed will give parents and educators alike some helpful ideas for fortifying their learners’ JHL education.

Wish List Compilations

d. Grant History

Below is an annually updated list of JHL programs that have received our Japanese-language grants within the past five years. To learn more about JFLA’s Japanese-language grant programs, please visit Japan Foundation Los Angeles | Language Grants (

Grant History

2. Japan Foundation Resources

  • The Japan Foundation has an extensive catalog of Japanese-language learning resources available online:
  • Our e-learning platform Minato is a convenient way for students to self-study or supplement their existing efforts.
  • For a quick and convenient way to study the fundamentals on-the-go, our Memory Hint apps are a great way to learn and review hiragana, katakana and kanji.
  • Hirogaru is a topic-based study platform for all skill levels and is especially recommended for heritage language learners looking to know more about Japan and its culture.
  • Marugoto is the Japan Foundation’s textbook and course series. Teachers are invited to incorporate Marugoto into their classroom and direct students to utilize the web component.
  • JF USA Digital Library is a service which makes various digital materials available to rent such as Japanese-language textbooks and Japanese picture books for children.

3. Teaching Resources

a. JHL

  • 奥村三菜子・櫻井直子・鈴木裕子(2016)『日本語教師のためのCEFR』くろしお出版
  • カナダ日本語教育振興会 (1997)『継承語としての日本語教育ーカナダの経験を踏まえてー Japanese as a Heritage Language: The Canadian Experience』
  • カミンズ・ジム(中島和子著訳)(2021)『言語マイノリティを支える教育(新装版)』明石書店
  • カミンズ・ジム、ダネシ・マルセル著(中島和子・高垣俊之訳)(2005)『カナダの継承語教育 多文化・多言語主義をめざして』明石書店
  • 近藤ブラウン妃美・坂本光代・西川明美(2019)『親と子をつなぐ継承語教育-日本・外国にルーツを持つ子ども』くろしお出版
  • 佐藤群衛他(2020)『海外で学ぶ子どもの教育 日本人学校、補習授業校の新たな挑戦』明石書店
  • 佐藤群衛(2019)『多文化社会に生きる子どもの教育 外国人の子ども、海外で学ぶ子どもの現状と課題』明石書店
  • 佐藤群衛・片岡裕子(編) (2008)『アメリカで育つ日本の子どもたち-バイリンガルの光と影』明石書店
  • ダグラス昌子・知念聖美 (2014)『アメリカの継承語教育』
  • デイビッド・C・ボロック、ルース=ヴァン’・リーケン(訳 嘉納もも、日部八重子)(2010)『サードカルチャーキッズ』スリーエーネットワーク
  • 早津子(2004)『異文化に暮らす子どもたち ことばと心をはぐくむ』金子書房
  • 箕浦康子(2003)『子どもの異文化体験増補改訂版 人間形成過程の心理人類学的研究』新思索社
  • 糸永真帆・勝部和花子・札谷緑(編)(2014)『ドイツ発 つなぐーわたし・家族・日本語』日本文化言語センター

b. Bilingual/Multilingual Education

  • 桶谷仁美(編著)(近刊予定)『家庭でバイリンガル・トライリンガルを育てるー親と教師が知っておきたい基礎知識ー就学前を中心に』明石書店
  • 桶谷仁美(編著)(2007)『家庭でバイリンガルを育てる 0歳からのバイリンガル教育』明石書店
  • 中島和子(1998: 2018)『アルク選書シリーズ完全改訂版 バイリンガル教育の方法 12歳までに親と教師ができること』アルク
  • 中島和子(編著)(2010)『マルチリンガル教育への招待 言語資源としての外国人・日本人年少者』ひつじ書房
  • 中島和子(1998)『言葉と教育』海外子女教育振興財団
  • Cummins, J. (2021). Rethinking the Education of Multilingual Learners. A Critical Analysis of Theoretical Concepts. Linguistic Diversity and Language Rights: 19, Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  • Cummins, J. (1996, 2001). Negotiating Identities. Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society. Ontario: California Association for Bilingual Education.
  • Cummins, J. and Early, M. (eds.) (2011). Identity Texts. The Collaborative Creation of Power in Multilingual Schools. Oakhill: Trentham Books Limited.
  • Cummins, H. and Hornberger, N. (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Vol. 5. Bilingual Education. New York: Springer.

c. Curriculum Design

  • 奥村 好美・ 西岡加名恵 (2020)『「逆向き設計」実践ガイドブック: 「理解をもたらすカリキュラム設計」を読む・活かす・共有する』 日本標準
  • 斎藤ひろみ・池上摩希子・近田由紀子(編)『外国人児童生徒の学びを作る授業実践ー「ことばと教科の力」を育む浜松の取り組み』くろしお出版
  • ダグラス昌子 (2021) 継承日本語教育における早期リテラシー発達期における指導法のデザインに向けて: 読みの指導を中心に Japanese as a Heritage Language SIG e-journal Vol.5,
  • ダグラス昌子 (2006) 年少者のための継承日本語教育におけるプロジェクトア プローチを使った合同授業のデザイン. Japanese as a Heritage Language SIG e-journal Vol.1.
  • 西岡加名恵(訳)(2012)『グラント ウィギンズ, ジェイ マクタイ 理解をもたらすカリキュラム設計―「逆向き設計」の理論と方法』日本標準 (原本Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design (expanded 2nd edition). Alexandria, VA: ASCD)
  • 横溝紳一郎・坂本正(監修・著)(2012)『教案の作り方編』アルク
  • Jensen, J. and Sandrock, P. (2007). The Essentials of World Languages, Grades K-12. Effective Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

d. Methods & Approaches

  • 奥野由紀子、小林明子,佐藤礼子,元田Me静,渡部倫子 (2021) 『日本語でPEACE』凡人社
  • 奥野由紀子 , 小林明子 , 佐藤礼子 , 元田静 , 渡部倫子 (2018) 『日本語教師のためのCLILL入門』凡人社
  • 柏木賀津子 , 伊藤由紀子 (2020) 『小中学校で取り組むはじめてのCLILL授業つくり』大修館書店
  • 鎌田 修 , 嶋田 和子 , 迫田 久美子 (2008) 『プロフィシエンシーを育てる~真の日本語能力をめざして』凡人社
  • PBLガイドブック(高校版)(2022) 岡山教育委員会
  • 佐伯夕利子(2021) 『教えないスキル ビジャレアルに学ぶ7つの人材育成術』小学館新書

e. Assessment Methods

f. Teaching Materials

4. Recognition of Language Proficiency

a. AP Japanese Language and Culture Exam

The AP Japanese Language and Culture exam offers students a way to earn college credits for a fraction of the cost if they pass, and it assesses student understanding of the skills and learning objectives outlined in the AP Japanese Language and Culture course framework. The exam takes roughly two hours and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions, as well as listening, reading, writing, and speaking sections. The AP Japanese Language and Culture course is equivalent to an intermediate-level college Japanese course and is typically taken by students in their fourth year of high-school-level study.

The College Board website offers many details and study resources, including sample questions and materials, that students can use to understand the AP Japanese test in more depth and prepare for what they will face on exam day. For more information, contact your school counselor.

b. Recognition of Bilingual and Biliteracy Ability

Global Seal of Biliteracy
The Global Seal of Biliteracy™ is a credential awarded to those who pass the official test, regardless of their age or school, proving their bilingual and biliteracy proficiency. The GSB is awarded in all 50 states, as well as Washington D.C., to a number of individuals which continues to increase. The criteria for the GSB is the same no matter what state you live in. The GSB is a certification which can be included on one’s college application or professional resume. JHL schools may even include their school name on the certificate and award it to their students. 

Below is a video explaining the steps necessary in order to receive this certification.

Masako Douglas –継承日本語学校の生徒がバイリンガル・バイリテラシ―の認定を受ける方法 (video, 2022) 

State Seal of Biliteracy
The State Seal of Biliteracy is an award given by states, school districts and participating public schools in recognition of high school students who have studied and attained proficiency in two or more languages by the time they graduate. This certification in a world language is earned by meeting the standards set by either a state or school-sanctioned test, and by completing a high-school English certificate program or by passing an English proficiency exam. However, the criteria for certification varies by state. The certificate will bear the name of the school. Currently, 49 states and Washington, D.C. have approved a statewide Seal of Biliteracy. The State Seal of Biliteracy appears on the transcript or diploma of graduating seniors who have completed the requirements, and the seal serves as a statement of accomplishment to future employers and college recruiters. Additionally, some public schools and school districts in states with a formal State Seal of Biliteracy program have begun implementing Pathways to Biliteracy Awards programs for younger students in an effort to recognize significant steps towards developing biliteracy along a students’ trajectory leading up to high school, including at the time of graduation from preschool, kindergarten, elementary, and middle school.
For more information regarding the State Seal of Biliteracy, Pathways to Biliteracy Awards, and their implementation at a state, school or school district level, please visit the official Seal of Biliteracy website.

AATJ Webinar: The State Seal of Biliteracy, Our Programs, and Me – American Association of Teachers of Japanese

The purposes for instituting the Global Seal of Biliteracy and Seal of Biliteracy are numerous:

  • To encourage students to study languages
  • To certify attainment of biliteracy skills
  • To recognize the value of language diversity
  • To provide employers with proof of the extent to which the applicant possesses language and biliteracy skills
  • To provide universities with a method to recognize and apply previously earned world language credit to applicants for attainment of high-level skills in multiple languages
  • To prepare students with 21st century skills that will benefit them in the labor market and the global society
  • To strengthen intergroup relationships and honor the multiple cultures and languages in a community

5. Professional Development

a. AGPlus

AGPlus is a project that was launched in 2022 with the goal of supporting hoshuko/supplementary school teachers, and it is an upgrade to its predecessor, the AG5 project, which was developed by Japan Overseas Educational Services (JOES) and commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (MEXT) for global human resources development at overseas educational institutions.
Based on the network of hoshuko/supplementary schools around the world, AGPlus regularly conducts exchanges of opinions and ideas between teachers, discussions regarding management issues, and it improves teaching practices.

The AG5 site linked to below contains information related to overseas educational institutions, including hoshuko/supplementary schools.

b. American Association of Teachers of Japanese (AATJ) – JHL SIG
The JHL SIG was established to provide a home base for collecting and disseminating research findings in the field, and promoting JHL education. They publish research papers and reports on curriculum and instructional materials through their on-line journal, post conference paper abstracts on the SIG web site, and host a mailing list for information exchange and discussion on JHL issues. All AATJ members who are interested in JHL education and research are welcome.
American Association of Japanese Language Teachers JHL-SIG e-journal:

c. Bilingual/Multilingual Child Network
The Bilingual/Multilingual Child Network (BMCN) is a volunteer organization that supports language and character development in children who grow up in a bilingual/multilingual environment with the hope that they will grow up to become the bilingual/multilingual human resources we need in this global age. BMCN is intended for all those involved in child-rearing, including parents who have no choice but to raise their children in a different culture, doctors, nurses, nursery teachers, instructors, volunteers, and government officials. (Quoted from website)

d. Coalition of Community-Based Heritage Language Schools
The Coalition of Community-Based Heritage Language Schools is a nationwide initiative, established in 2012, to connect, support, and advocate for community-based heritage language schools across the United States. They organize an annual conference, webinars, and online discussions.

Conference information:

Registration is open in mid-April. Program is available from the above conference site in mid-April.

e. The Japanese Society for Mother Tongue, Heritage Language, and Bilingual Education (MHB) – 海外継承日本語部会 (site currently under renovation)
MHB 海外継承日本語部会 is a special interest group (SIG) belonging to the Japanese Society for Mother Tongue, Heritage Language, and Bilingual Education (MHB) which was established in the summer of 2012 and has many participants including teachers at both hoshuko/supplementary schools and weekend schools, administrators involved in the operations of these schools, and researchers interested in JHL education.

This site was launched for the mutual support and professional development of its members living in different parts of the world. Members use a member mailing list to communicate and share information and opinions with each other. 

Note: The Japanese Society for Mother Tongue, Heritage Language, and Bilingual Education (MHB) was formerly the MHB Research Society and became an academic society in April of 2018. (Quoted from website)

f. Northeast Council of Teachers of Japanese
Northeast Council of Teachers of Japanese (NECTJ) is a non-profit organization based in New York. Its mission is to improve teaching skills of the Japanese language teachers of the pre-collegiate level from kindergarten through grade 16. Established in 1992, NECTJ has been conducting various conferences and workshops aiming at professional development of the teachers. It also conducted numerous student programs including Harumatsuri, the spring festival for the local highschool students and Haiku contests. Some of the activities are supported by the Japan Foundation.